SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social SciencesПравильная ссылка на статью:
On the development of scientific and educational speleological tourism in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (Russian Federation) / К вопросу развития научно-познавательного спелеологического туризма в Республике Саха (Якутия)
Дата направления статьи в редакцию:07-11-2019
Аннотация: В статье описывается новый вид познавательно-экстремального туризма – научно-познавательный спелеотуризм. Рассматривается вопрос организации и развития спелеологического туризма на территории Якутии в научно-познавательном аспекте по изучению географических особенностей региона - наскальных рунических и руноподобных надписей с предложением путей и механизмов развития данного вида туризма, который представляется одним из перспективных направлений в развитии въездного и внутреннего туризма в Якутии, позволяющей привлечь большое число туристов-исследователей. При выполнении работы использовались методы рекреационной дифференциации территории (рекреационное районирование), SWOT-анализ, полевые наблюдения, сравнительно-географический, а также анализ документов и фондовых материалов организаций и учреждений, литературных источников. Новизна исследования заключается в том, что дан анализ развития спелеологического туризма в регионе, выявлены географические особенности развития спелеологического туризма и сформированы рекомендации для развития данного вида туризма в Республике Саха (Якутия).Туристские маршруты, составленные с использованием геообъектов, содействуют охране окружающей среды, воспитывают у человека чувство гармонии с природой, осознание ее хрупкости и ранимости, формирует у него экологическое сознание и культуру.
Ключевые слова: спелеотуризм, спелеологический туризм, культурные памятники, наскальные надписи, геообъекты, исторические памятники, туризм, спелеологические туры, туристические маршруты, рекреационная деятельность
Abstract: The article describes a new kind of educational and extreme tourism – speleotourism. The author examines the question of organization and development of speleological tourism in Yakutia from scientific-educational perspective of studying the geographical peculiarities of the region – rupestral and runic-like inscriptions, as well as offers the methods and mechanisms for the development of this type of tourism, which is a promising direction of inbound and outbound tourism in Yakutia and attracts a large number of tourists-researchers. The article employs the methods of recreational zoning, SWOT-analysis, field observations, comparative-geographical method, analysis of the documents and fund materials of the institutions and organizations, as well as literary sources. The scientific novelty of this work lies in providing the analysis of development of speleological tourism in the Sakha Republic, determination of geographical peculiarities of its development, and formulation of recommendations for the advancement of this type of tourism in the region. Tourist routs, composed with consideration of geographical objects, contribute to protection of the environment, cultivate the sense of harmony with nature in a person, awareness of its fragility and vulnerability, forms environmental responsibility and culture.
Keywords:tourism, historical monuments, geological objects, rock inscriptions, cultural monuments, speleological tourism, speleotourism, speleological tours, tourist route, recreational activity
The mountain territories of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) have good natural prerequisites for the development of almost all types of active tourism. Active tourism is one of the most dynamically developing segments of the tourist business, becoming an important factor in the socio-economic development of the territory and at the same time contributing to the preservation of cultural and historical monuments, natural landscapes and resources. One of the most popular and dynamically developing types of active tourism is speleotourism, which makes it possible to make trips to natural underground cavities (caves), mountain ranges, rocks and gorges with water obstacles for sports and educational purposes.
The mountains of Yakutia, which have a variety of not only natural conditions, landscapes and processes, but also a rich presence of runic and rune-like inscriptions, for many decades, attracted the attention of scientists of different profiles: geographers, biologists, botanists, historians, ethnographers, linguists, runologists, etc. It is well known that the runic inscriptions of Yakutia are the northernmost written monuments. In this regard, the study and preservation of these runic and rune-like texts is one of the main tasks of modern fundamental science. According to the well-known Turkic linguist G. G. Levin, Yakutia is the territory of the storage of rock runic and rune-like inscriptions, which are the source of studying the history of not only the Yakut language and the origin of the Sakha people, but also the Turkic languages in General and their ancestral home [5, p.67].
In this regard, this study examines the organization and development of speleological tourism on the territory of Yakutia in the scientific and cognitive aspect of the study of geographical features of the region - rock runic and rune-like inscriptions. The study also suggests ways and mechanisms for the development of this type of tourism, which is one of the promising areas in the development of inbound and domestic tourism in Yakutia, which allows attracting a large number of tourist researchers.
The information base of the research consists of scientific and reference sources, cartographic sources, local history literature, tourist guides, as well as official Internet sites. An important role in the study was played by the materials of participation in scientific expeditions and tourist trips to study the rock runic and rune-like inscriptions in the territory of Yakutia for the period from 2008 to 2013 under the leadership of G. G. Levin.
Theoretical and methodological basis of this theme consists of the works of A. Y. Alexandrova, Y. A. Vedenin, K. V. Kruzhalin, E. A. Kotlyarov, L. I. Mukhina, P. G. Oldach, V. S. Preobrazhenskiy, Y. S. Putrik, D. M. Nasilov, G. G. Levin, and others.
The methods of recreational differentiation of the territory (recreational zoning), SWOT-analysis, field observations, statistical and comparative geographical analysis, as well as analysis of documents and stock materials of organizations and institutions, literary sources, descriptions and classifications were used in the work.
Only a few people were engaged in research of rock runic and rune-like inscriptions. In 30-40 years of XX century the problem of runic inscriptions of Kurykans (ancestors of Sakha) studied Finnish researchers K. Donner, M. Räsänen, Yakut ethnographer G. V. Ksenofontov, linguist P. A. Oyunsky, turkologist S. E. Malov. 40-50 g. of the XX century the problem of the Lena-Baikal runic inscriptions were engaged historians A. P. Okladnikov, A. N. Bernstam, I. I. Barashkov, turkologist N. K. Antonov.
In their scientific works, it was noted that the ancient Yakuts used some unknown runic script. In the 90's, the study of the Lena-Baikal inscriptions resumed. Expedition works were organized, as a result of which previously unknown rock runic inscriptions were discovered.
In 1995-2001 in the territory of Yakutia were found about 20 new runic and unknown inscriptions on the rocks of the Lena River, on ancient metal objects, on ancient wooden buildings, on ancient graves etc. Currently, researchers of Russia, Turkey, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Germany and the United States are engaged in the study of ancient Turkic writing. Their works mainly deal with the issues of Orkhon, Yenisei and East Turkestan texts. For this reason, the world Turkic literature does not fully reflect the essence of the Lena-Baikal runic inscriptions. Since 2000, G. G. Levin engaged the study of Lena-Baikal inscriptions and the unknown inscriptions, under whom were organized the expeditions. In 1995-2003, new runic inscriptions and rune-like signs were found in the territory of Yakutia. In particular, rock runic inscriptions on locations Letniy Artyk (Middle Lena), Suruktakh Haya (river Markha), Krestyakh (river Olekma), the inscriptions on the seal in Algae (Suntarsky ulus), on wooden building (Khotugu Chelgeria), on sacred tree (Nuchalah alas) and numerous rune-like signs near the rivers Markha, Sinyaya and Olekma. Two runic inscriptions consisting of 4 and 2 signs were found on the Markha river (Olekminsky ulus). The lyrics have been written high on the rock with red ochre. We decoded the first inscription as “äsiğ til” - “sacred word“, the second “äliğ” – “hand“ or ”fifty”. In addition to these inscriptions there are unencrypted inscriptions-puzzles consisting of 7 and 3 rune-like signs on the same rock. Another inscription was found on a cliff of the river Olekma. The inscription written in red ochre of a bluish tint. It was revealed that the height of the signs is 17-20 cm. The inscription has previously been decoded as äb ädgü.... altïp – literally: “the house is good .... after receiving...". According to the materials of expedition, Museum and archival works, G. G. Levin divides runic and rune-like inscriptions of Yakutia into four groups:
1) Ancient inscriptions – inscriptions on the rocks (Lena-Baikal inscriptions, rock inscriptions in the territory of Yakutia – rivers Sinyaya, Olekma, Markha);
2) Late inscriptions (XIV-XVIII centuries) – inscriptions on various minor items (on the arrowhead, on seals, various runic signs on special boards);
3) Combined inscriptions (XVII-XVIII centuries) - inscriptions from Vilyuysk, Khotugu Chelgeria, Nuchalah Alas, Bilir, Ulakhan-An I;
4) Unknown runic and rune-like inscriptions (approximately XIII-XIX centuries) – the inscription on the silver plate, box and stone [5, p. 265].
On the territory of modern Yakutia there are not only traces of ancient runes, but also we can trace the further development of runic writing. For example, here can be attributed Tamga runes left on various seals, calendars of XVII-XVIII centuries., runic inscription on the tip of the arrow of the XIV century, found in the Ust-Aldan ulus during the excavation of kulun-atah culture, as well as combined inscriptions of the XVII century. In all probability, some part of the Yakuts retained the written language of their ancestors until late time and used it.
Thus, in terms of determining the territory of the organization of speleotouristic trips, we proceed from the fact that the runic and rune-like inscriptions of Yakutia were recorded and traced in the southern, western and central economic zones of the region, in which the organization of scientific and educational speleological tourist routes is proposed.
With regard to the capabilities of the organization speleological trips, we need to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the development of speleological tours in Yakutia, to review its reserves and unused opportunities by SWOT analysis, which also provides an opportunity to assess the organization speleotouristic trips in Yakutia (table 1).
Tab.1. SWOT analysis of the development of speleological tourism
in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
SWOT analysis shows that there are internal positive aspects for the development of speleological tourism in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). This is the presence of promising natural resources in the territory of Yakutia: the presence of caves, mountain ranges, rocks, unique flora and fauna of Yakutia. Strong factors are the professional skills of instructors-guides, as shown by the experience of their participation in a variety of tourist routes. Analysis revealed problems of development of speleotourism, which slow down this process. The weak position of speleotourism in Yakutia is lack of information environment: caving tourism is not widely covered in the mass media in Yakutia, Russia and abroad.
For the development of speleological tourism, state authorities need to work on the tourist attractiveness of the republic. To achieve this objective, first of all, participation in Russian and international exhibitions and fairs with the presentation of speleological tourism is necessary. This initiative requires serious preparation - including exhibition materials, etc., however, it is an important channel for brand promotion. We see the expansion of speleotourism facilities in the organization of new speleotours on the rocks and mountains of the Republic, as mountain areas of the Republic have good natural prerequisites for the development of almost all types of active tourism. A special category of resources for scientific and educational Speleological tourism is a variety of rock runic and rune-like inscriptions.
We see measures to conquer new segments of consumers through flexible pricing policy in the development of special offers, discounts, and benefits for customers-tourists. Today, there are many organizations involved in upgrading the skills of employees of tourist agencies under the programs "Guide-guide", "Instructor-guide", etc. However, in the organization of scientific and educational speleological tourism, proposed in this article, it is necessary to attract researchers involved in this issue. In addition, it is necessary to open a club for training athletes-speleologists at the Institute of physical education of North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk.
External threats to the development of speleotourism are high competition in the market of tourist services, the instability of the economic environment in the world, the seasonality of the demand for tours due to the sharply continental climate and the long Northern winter. These threats are large-scale and are real not only for this type of tourism, but also for the tourism business of the Republic as a whole.
Thus, the indicators identified by the SWOT analysis allow to identify those aspects that are in a winning position and need to be maintained at the proper level, and aspects, the modernization of which can accelerate the development of speleological tourism. The study also showed that the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is characterized by a rich set of natural conditions and resources. That makes it very attractive for the organization of a variety of outdoor activities, especially in the organization of scientific and educational speleotourism in the study of runic and rune-like inscriptions found on the rocks of southern, Western and Central parts of Yakutia. In this regard, having a diverse geological structure and the presence of a large number of geo-objects and natural monuments, the territory of Yakutia is promising for the development of scientific and educational tourism, as a special kind of speleotourism.
In this regard, in order to develop scientific and educational speleological tourism in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), we have developed the following recommendations to organize this type of tourism at the proper level:
a) it is necessary to develop and implement a state policy, including a set of measures aimed at involving the local population in the service of tourists, which is not yet ready to provide services; the creation of infrastructure, the formation of a system of training of guides and guides-researchers;
b) it is necessary to develop advertising and promotion of the tourist product in the regions of Russia; increasing the responsibility of tourists, travel agents and tour operators for registration on the route, development of the system of compulsory and voluntary insurance in the field of active tourism;
c) as a result of the assessment of the territory of Yakutia, 3 economic zones were identified that are most attractive for the development of scientific and educational tourism in the study of rock runic inscriptions: Central, South and West zones. Within the selected zones, tourist routes should be developed with a description of Geo objects;
d) to make a proposal to the Ministry of Environment, Nature and Forestry of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) to take under state protection geo-objects in order to prevent their destruction by the negative impacts of tourism and tourist activities;
e) to make a proposal to the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) to take part in ensuring safe conditions for the speleo-tourists, equipping them with serviceable equipment, as well as checking compliance with safety requirements accommodation and catering for tourists and sightseers.
Thus, the scientific and educational speleotourism can become one of the economic factors for the sustainable development of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Currently, this type of recreational activity directly depends on the well-being of the tourism industry in general in the country and the republic, which is characterized by a large number of problems. The development of tourism is largely constrained by the national policy in the field of tourism. However, part of the problem in order to increase the profitability of the tourism industry can be solved within the region. This requires certain actions on the part of representatives of regional and local authorities, the scientific community, business structures, and the public and other interested subjects. Tourist routes, compiled with the use of geo-objects, contribute to the protection of the environment, cultivate a person's sense of harmony with nature, awareness of its fragility and vulnerability, it forms an ecological consciousness and culture. For some territories of the Republic, the organization of speleotours can become one of the ways to improve the quality of life, enhance investment and business activities, attract resources and promote the effective use of existing natural and labor potential.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions. All authors automatically own full copyright in their work as soon as they create it, and current Russian Federal legislation protects them.
Licence type: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
The journal is an open access journal which means that everybody can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles in accordance with Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.